Panama (i/ˈpænəmɑː/PAN-ə-mah; Spanish:Panamá[panaˈma]), officially called the Republic of Panama (Spanish:República de Panamá), is a country in Central America situated between North and South America. It is bordered by Costa Rica to the west, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean to the north and the Pacific Ocean to the south. The capital and largest city is Panama City, whose metropolitan area is home to nearly half of the country's 3.9 million people.
Panama was inhabited by several indigenous tribes prior to settlement by the Spanish in the 16th century. Panama broke away from Spain in 1821 and joined a union of Nueva Granada, Ecuador, and Venezuela named the Republic of Gran Colombia. When Gran Colombia dissolved in 1831, Panama and Nueva Granada remained joined, eventually becoming the Republic of Colombia. With the backing of the United States, Panama seceded from Colombia in 1903, allowing the Panama Canal to be built by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers between 1904 and 1914. In 1977, an agreement was signed for the total transfer of the Canal from the United States to Panama by the end of the 20th century, which culminated on 31 December 1999.
A general distinction can be made between (a) civil lawjurisdictions (including Catholic canon law and socialist law), in which the legislature or other central body codifies and consolidates their laws, and (b) common law systems, where judge-made precedent is accepted as binding law. Historically, religious laws played a significant role even in settling of secular matters, which is still the case in some religious communities, particularly Jewish, and some countries, particularly Islamic. Islamic Sharia law is the world's most widely used religious law.
Greekkanon / Ancient Greek: κανών,Arabic Qanun / قانون, Hebrew kaneh / קנה, "straight"; a rule, code, standard, or measure; the root meaning in all these languages is "reed" (cf. the Romance-language ancestors of the English word "cane").
Canons of the Apostles
The Apostolic Canons or Ecclesiastical Canons of the Same Holy Apostles is a collection of ancient ecclesiastical decrees (eighty-five in the Eastern, fifty in the Western Church) concerning the government and discipline of the Early Christian Church, incorporated with the Apostolic Constitutions which are part of the Ante-Nicene Fathers
In the fourth century the First Council of Nicaea (325) calls canons the disciplinary measures of the Church: the term canon, κανὠν, means in Greek, a rule. There is a very early distinction between the rules enacted by the Church and the legislative measures taken by the State called leges, Latin for laws.
They discovered a common pattern of wealthy Mexican elites using a single Panamanian law firm, Alcogal (Aleman, Cordero, Galindo & Lee), along with shell companies and trusts in the British Virgin Islands, and real estate purchases in Miami and around the US ... banking laws.
According to the ICIJ, Mrs Kenyatta and her daughters were advised by experienced international wealth experts from the Swiss bankUnion Bancaire Privée (UBP), which recruited Alcogal, a Panamanian law firm specialising in setting up and administering offshore companies.
That web of complexity was stitched with help from a top Panamanian law firm specializing in secrecy, a firm whose ownership is interwoven into the very fabric of Panamanian politics ... The PandoraPapers shined a spotlight on the law firm Aleman, Cordero, Galindo & Lee (aka ALCOGAL), putting the powerful Panamanian firm in the public eye.
According to records from Panamanian law firm Alcogal (Aleman, Cordero, Galindo & Lee), Niharika Raje is a “beneficial owner” of OctaviaLimited, incorporated in Belize... “…Answering your questions, or rectifying or clarifying your statements, to the best of our ability, could result in a violation of laws, and our ethical duties to our clients.
The massive leak of the PandoraPapers, which exposed millions of confidential documents from offshore companies and the law firms that helped set them up, revealed new details about a Panamanian businessman who snatched a hotel away from Donald Trump... as well," said Dev Odedra, a British banking consultant who works to stop money laundering ... .
Now, documents of the BVI chapter of the Panamanian law firm Alcogal (Aleman, Cordero, Galindo & Lee) show that Gupta was the UBO (Ultimate Beneficial Owner) of Itasca International Limited, BVI, incorporated on July 1, 2009 ... In fact, when Itasca was incorporated, Fernando A Gil, a Panamanian citizen, was its sole director ... Tags ... Advertisement ... .
The stories also signaled the end of Mossack Fonseca, the Panamanian law firm whose records were published in the Miami Herald and other news outlets ...TridentTrust corresponded with a law firm and paid it for filing the transfer but it is unclear from the leaks whether the change was successful.
If the 2016 "PanamaPapers" singled out the Panamanian law firm and corporate services provider Mossack Fonseca, the "Pandora Papers" faults 14 financial services firms that manage 29,000 offshore companies.
An attorney for the family said they comply with the law ... They're hidden from law enforcement ... The family's offshore companies were first exposed in 2016 by the PanamaPapers leak, which revealed company documents created for clients of Mossack Fonseca, a now-defunct Panamanian law firm.